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Welcome to this Learning Object call “IoT and WoT”.

This Learning Object was the result from the Major Assignment 2, in a Master course call “Information and Knowledge Management” imparted in Tallinn University (Estonia), in 2015/2016 (Spring Semester) for the Master Digital Library Learning. This work has been done by Irene Calzada Obispo.

I wondering to present an interesting topic that it is called the Web of Things but also, and so close to it, the Internet of Things. We are going to travel between the theory and some interactive videos. Also, we are going to have a final assignment (for proving our knowledge) and some references that I used for this topic.

Let’s get started!

Objectives

This Learning Object is designed to give basic principles on the two concepts of “internet of things” and “web of things” and all its background. Also, put these two concepts in contrast and highlight what to do with information and knowledge management. This will be done by reading articles, glimpse some of the newest theories and visualize some videos. At the end of the course, ​you will have to present an Assignment to give as all learned during these hours.

This course is about approximate 20 hours.

It does not require any prior knowledge, nor require any specific material for its development. Exclusively, Adobe Flash Player development videos.

The Learning Outcomes covered in this Learning Object will be:
– Internet of Things.
– Web of Things.
– Background of the concepts.
– Differences between the concepts.
– Applications in the present and the future of this concepts.

Introduction

everythnggraphicsToday and for some years, we are closely related to technology and smart devices. If we go back a few years ago, everyone had one or two electronic items but, today, an average of six or seven possessed for each person. This increase has meant that we are very interconnected with our environment either environmental or human ​but has also made an important and large flow of information traveling through frequencies and waves, being used at the whim of those who can get generated to access it. Such access and use thereof, you can convert that data into useful knowledge for any purpose. The problem is who, how, why and where it is performed.

In this Learning Object so cursory we learn the concepts of Web of Things (WoT) and Internet of Things (IoT) and other less notorious and major in this subject matter concepts. In addition, we enter what definitions give all these terms by referencing different personalities from their newest items and to ensure knowledge, representative videos of matter should be attached. But what we can say at first both? Find a difference between the two terms is complicated, since actually have no further characterization that the fact that the WoT is the evolution of IoT. And slightly explain what is meant by Internet of Things?

It is assumed that you are the interconnections between intelligent devices. But then, what is the difference with the Web of Things? It is basic, interconnection would be with all devices, even those that are not considered today in “smart” day. Then we leave a video explaining without words what is the connection in the sense of “The Social Web of Things” since it with a daily explanation, it is understood that one could assume better what is being spoken.

First part, 4:07 min.
Second part, 2:36 min.

Currently, almost anything was seen​ in the videos possible. Communication with own homes, today, is being implemented but in some points, yes that we can establish communications with smart refrigerators, ovens or vacuum cleaners. The pre-programming is a key point of all this entity but with the connection established on the model of “The Web of Things”, everything could change.

There are different experts and very different theories, which makes both terms charge similar way, but with different nuances. Throughout these lessons, gradually we can go given these differences and observe the aforementioned developments.

Internet of Things

A short video for the start, Jason Silva as the speaker.

It is understood, according to multiple definitions Internet of Things (IoT) is the connection between current digital objects Internet, including software objects and between objects and sensors, etc. According to many other definitions, where previously mentioned The Internet as connection endpoint can be found: the connection between objects, between objects and people, between people and the Internet, etc. The problem is that if we are to find a common and accepted definition, we can not. Many scientists find common ground but because of the novelty of this term with a set of itself – because really been active under this name since 1999/2000 – is not possible.

One of the first to propose this concept was Kevin Ashton (1999, a researcher at MIT) which were engaged in research network sensors and fields. This is the first name, and date, it has to sound when we speak of IoT, despite that already existed long before: from thermostats that exist in homes to regulate temperature, until the lights come on automatically when you are going ahead. But wanting to go deeper into the theory of Kevin Ashton can be found in references one of his articles That ‘Internet of Things’ thing publishes in 2009. As he himself defined, it was the first to use the expression It does not mean that neither this did not exist before, or that entitles you to make value judgments about all that the terminology used in IoT means.

It goes further, stating that the IoT for it basically is the conduit through which humans are carrying machines to do all those things that have such data, and that we do not have time – because there are billions and billions of data on the internet and we do not have the material to read, analyze and study all time – to implement them. But this, how can we understand, is a very materialistic way to observe this IoT, but is also a very simple way: Every day interconnect more and more objects, software, sensors, etc. to make our life much easier without leaving anything to chance, since the machines can provide more to a human brain with its mathematics and not a subjective neural cells predictions.

But this was not the only author who has spoken about it … Let us look more definitions and authors, with some interesting excerpts from articles that can be found in references.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel paradigm that is rapidly gaining ground in the scenario of modern wireless telecommunications. The basic idea of this concept is the pervasive presence around us of a variety of things or objects – such as Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags, sensors, actuators, mobile phones, etc. – which, through unique addressing schemes, are able to interact with each other and cooperate with their neighbors to reach common goals.

As in the above quotation from Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010) we can understand, they do not leave any kind of device out. They speak from the radio frequency to the sensors, without forgetting at any time from mobile phones or computers included in the cars. Throughout his article, they are referring to all smart device can be connected to perform an automatic function that will pave the way to man.

But now, let’s continue with a couple of interesting videos, to give more support to our theories. Both have been extracted from a youtube channel called FW: Thinking with Jonathan Strickland as the speaker.

What is The Internet of Things?, 3:21 min.
How the Internet of Things Will Change the World, 4:18 min.
A primary goal of interconnecting devices (e.g., sensors) and collecting/processing data from them is to create situation awareness and enable applications, machines, and human users to better understand their surrounding environments.

Other items such as Barnaghi, P., Sheth, A., & Henson, C. (2013) enter more deeply not only in what is understood as a definition of IoT but what it’s made. We are understanding that the definitions may be different but until now referred to now briefly some of the most important points of three theories we see that more or less all the authors agree to the same, but not at the same point are “open” and at this point is the number of types of existing connections.

Other authors such as Da Xu, L., He, W., & Li, S. (2014) demonstrate his theory parameters share the same radio frequency, wireless, sensors and other smart devices exposed by Atzori et al (2010) but much more even deeper because of the time of formulating the same. For if something has to be taken into account is the year of publication of the documents.

This theory, IoT theory, has come a long way in a matter of 15-16 years old. This is because despite being formulated as a new concept, possessed a strong foundation already established in the scientific community to which so far had not given her name. The evolution of these areas of knowledge, also to be in contact with large data managers that analyze and transform them into useful knowledge that we “make life easier”, it is evolving very fast. But we can not ignore the theory of Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013) that even loving her develop more posteriorly, is refreshing because they approximated future on the basis that today are already seated in this area.

The term Internet of Things has recently become popular to emphasize the vision of a global infrastructure of networked physical objects.

The quote is from the beginning of article Kortuem, G., Kawsar, F., Fitton, D., & Sundramoorthy, V. (2010), where we can realize that even in 2010, this term was still “new” popular . It strangers, with just over ten years, this continue developing and becoming but, over the years, never stood alone. Co this, we mean: when something is developing technological level, do not usually unilaterally. We should take into account concepts such as S. W. (Semantic web) or M2M (machine to machine) to understand from a practical approach and not just theoretical, what it is the development of these concepts.

Current form, and serving as an interpretive summary, the IoT is the development of the advanced connection between devices, systems, and services, which has little to do already with the M2M (Machine to Machine) that previously could exist for the most basic examples.

And seen the theoretical points and we believe we can end up with a final definition and importantly, how does it work? Video are expected to help support again exposed the whole theory.

How It Works: Internet of Things, 3:38 min.
Web Systems Engineering, 2:26 min.

Web of Things

logo-73a7e8f7f90e37f73c19b65db2cd5e2eOne of the reasons why it is difficult to explain what the Web of Things (WoT) is because there is a widespread confusion of this term, with the Internet of Things (IoT). We have seen a small glimpse approach is not the same, but the WoT is an evolution of IoT. But how can we prove that this is really the case? Quite simply, sailing again between definitions of Web of Things itself.

We must start each of the theories that will explain below is full of technicalities because enter the world of WoT is not exclusively enter into the world of how two things are connected by a digital environment, but what technical means used. However, it is not difficult to understand globally, the theory of Guinard, D., & Trifa, V. (2009), given that this is full of jargon and acronyms, is useful know some of them to develop in this area. Basically, they focus on the development of architecture and integration of WoT in various devices. As can be logical, will not enter fully into the architecture of WoT because this would be very complicated, but you can understand that this is composed of several languages dependent programming device being programmed, but getting to the end all of them perform the actions for which they are determined.

We do not have to go far to get a specific definition of what is considered a general level, Web of Things. According to Wikipedia is that which serves to describe the approach to speaking style architecture and programming patterns according to all the things that form part of the World Wide Web. What makes the WoT is to provide a basic technique layer to the Web and its applications, as well as The Internet. But because of the “recent” IoT, appearance this definition was renewed, as we can observe in Wikipedia now also comprises WoT those well known standards already used on the Web at the time of programming, but also taking into that form part of the Semantic web (and use), real-time web and the social web, which perhaps – the latter – is one of the most known to us as it encompasses all the existing social networks. So, what is the WoT for Wikipedia? It is a basic layer of programming standards and patterns for creating everything else. This is part of what causes the parallel advancement of IoT, which also arises and therefore is considered as an evolution.

But moving to another theory, we come to the Guinard, D., Trifa, V., & Wilde, E. (2010) which we will speak again given how interesting it is his article which it is recommended reading if you want to go much further in knowing the whole theory of IoT and WoT beneath. To observe this theory more closely, we have chosen two fragments that explain the good definition a bit these authors give the WoT.

One of the first mentions of a Web of Things composed of RESTful smart things comes from [15]. However it focuses mainly on the discovery of devices and not on how to provide their functionality on the Web.
Realization of the Web of Things requires to extend the existing Web so that real-world objects and embedded devices can blend seamlessly into it. Instead of using the Web protocols solely as a transport protocol — as done when using WS-* Web services for instance — we would like to make devices an integral part of the Web by using HTTP as an application layer protocol. The main contribution of the “Web of Things” approach is to take the next logical step beyond the network connectivity established by activities often summarized under the “Internet of Things” label.

With this theory, we have more or less clear what the Web of Things. Beyond that there are all understood that these connections between devices (you can see that is roughly the definition of the Internet of Things) is the foundation that supports programming level, standards, and protocols, everything mentioned. So, we can understand thanks to the definition of these authors why is not easy to find information either documentary or graphic of this term, based on something that is not completely technical. Likewise, and with this premise, it will use so that you can observe “what can be achieved with the WoT” of some videos that can be found in the introduction.

First part, 4:07 min.
Second part, 2:36 min.

Not jumping too much between authors and doing a search among other texts of some of those named authors – although not as a whole – we find another definition of WoT.

(…) we describe the Web of Things (WoT) architecture and best practices based on the RESTful principles that have already contributed to the popular success, scalability, and evolvability of the Web.

n this case, the event turns out to be Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Mattern, F., & Wilde, E. (2011) where we can see the definition for them despite the passage of one year does not change too . However, we have already seen twice what is RESTful? REST is an acronym that stands for “Representational State Transfer” and this process is what defines the architectural principles which shape the Web in a general way. It emerged in recent years predominantly displacing other processes. What does he do? REST is what defines the HTTP we see the beginning of many URLs make us the idea. But not only does that but many other things. It is what gives support to the web. For this reason, the aforementioned authors use for an explanation based on the principles of WoT.

Leaping to other definitions, we find more or less the already aforementioned to display that, unlike the IoT, the authors who write about it are a little more agreement.

According to the theory of Gustafson, S., & Sheth, A. (2014) we found a quote that is clearly interesting because it gives us another approach to the Web of Things so far, what the technical definitions above as you can understand, we have not had.

The term Web of Things (WoT) goes beyond the focus on the Internet as the mode of exchanging data, instead bringing in all resources and interactions involving devices, data, and people on the Web. Correspondingly, it brings into focus a wide variety of challenges and opportunities while paving a way to a variety of exciting applications for individuals to industries.

Here is part of the definition that the more we can interest us where data exchange is mentioned since these data are our main concern. So far we’ve talked about connections and devices, what they can do between them but had not taken into account “how to communicate” or “exchanging communicating”, which is one of the main concerns of this learning object.

Differences between IoT and WoT

We have seen, over the two definitions that we have done so far that there are differences, but also many similarities between what is known as Web of Things and Internet of Things. It has become clear that so far, the two are closely related and are considered an evolution but also a necessary base.

We are in the position then contrast this more scientific level, because in many articles can be found at the user level, do not make a distinction as clear about what they are and how they can both get separated. So let’s use back to some of the authors who have used before in the descriptions. With them, we can see how far you consider the definitions themselves we have used so far. Here are two excerpts from the same article, entitled “A Resource Oriented Architecture for the Web of Things” by Guinard, D., Trifa, V., & Wilde, E. (2010) are shown.

“We position the Web of Things as a refinement of the Internet of Things by integrating smart things not only into the Internet (the network), but into the Web (the application layer).”
“The main contribution of the “Web of Things” approach is to take the next logical step beyond the network connectivity established by activities often summarized under the “Internet of Things” label.”

In the first quote, we can understand that the definition of WoT used so more accurate than IoT, regarding the integration of smart devices not only Internet but with the Web in general. In the second round, we can understand that consider WoT above the IoT because they believe the next logical step in the integration of established network connectivities. However, we must not always look for differences, because so far we have established that were a little difficult to find: also to look for similarities.

“A rich cyber component of WoT includes Web-resident data, knowledge (in Wikipedia or Linked Open Data, for example), information exchanged over social media (such as sites in which patients share health-related information), and user-submitted physical world observations and measurements.”

In theory Gustafson, S., & Sheth, A. (2014), we understand that basically the WoT is being overcharged by the IoT and also something called the IEA, which could be broken down into the term “Internet of Everything” . While this is a term we will see later, we can understand that the junction point between WoT and IoT not only depends on the software ​but also a lot of hardware that sometimes severely limits use. Therefore, we could understand that in some cases the IoT has more breadth use the WoT since the latter is more subject to the devices themselves.

But as always, going to one of the search tools handiest we have and making connections between their results, Wikipedia shows us that while the Internet of things is more subject to the connections between devices, the Web of things is more focused on the semantic structure of the web and web architecture itself that make those connections, relating in recent years with social networks.

“Integrating the real-world data into the Web and providing Web-based interactions with the IoT resources is also often discussed under the umbrella term of Web of Things (WoT).”
“WoT resources can be ubiquitous and are often constrained in terms of power, memory, processing, and communication capabilities.”

As we can see in the theory of Barnaghi, P., Sheth, A., & Henson, C. (2013) by the quotes above are shown, the approximation between the two definitions is not only decided by authors who have already referenced earlier but new – relatively – also they delved into the subject, obtaining similar results. So, finally, what conclusion we?

Regarding the similarities broadly we can say that both – WoT and IoT – have been linked in recent years belong to the same series of processes and basically, look the same results. Differences also broadly are that the IoT is more taken to the part of the software, while the WoT is more tied to the hardware, taking both the limitations in these products.

Relation with IM and KM

So far, we have analyzed two different definitions and have seen the differences and similarities between them if they enter very theoretical level but how can we really relate to information and knowledge management? It is an interesting point because spoken in passing, we believe that there may be a nothing, a vacuum, in these communications but really all you are doing in the process of IoT and WoT is working with information: either moving it, analyzing it , using it to certain actions or simply as a base.

However, to begin with, we’ll use a quote again, recalling some words that give the start to what has become the real “necessity” of existing information, by some of our most influential authors in this Learning.

(…) the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly.

Then according to the theory of Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013), and using his own words to say it has “increased significantly”, the need for information not only on the side of humans but also of machines. During these short words, it will bring out all those things that have been left unexplained p​atents with theories but have not been fully disclosed waiting for this part of the unit.

For a machine to function and fulfill certain action, you need a scheduling basis, which means you need a substantial database to work with. It also requires a substantial database to analyze those perceived by the sensors or connections … Becoming that which arrives in knowledge. And based on the programming that has, to use that knowledge to set up the machine, to meet its target in one way or another. An example:

A thermostat. Get the temperature is outside on the outside, but the programming has to be established parameters of temperature where it is determined where the cold, where comfort and where the heat is there. Based on what these programming parameters are determined, to which the sensors read and send, to identify as outside temperature and what it compare with the parameters already had determined, you may regulate in a more or less certain temperature. And today, this is true; even with more complicated examples.

Clearly, among these concepts we can speak of two branches: Knowledge management and information management.

Knowledge management is what made the machines following the interpretation of what they receive based on programming possessing and using that same to perform their function while information management not only includes this same but also it includes any exchange of information that takes place between smart devices made all those services that have already been mentioned, and vice versa, to communicate again with the machines and tell them what they must do. This turns out to be a great movement, massive, information and knowledge that gradually increased as the number of devices also has. It is curious, however, that this demand is growing the flow instead of re-using it even, but that is something that sooner or later end up understanding.